Doktorské studium

Studijní obor Ekotoxikologie

Název práce: Biouhel a konazolové fungicidy v půdním prostředí: osud a účinky

Školitel: doc. RNDr. Jakub Hofman, Ph.D.

Předběžné zadání:
Pesticides, such as conazole fungicides (CF), are an indispensable part of modern agricultural management, contributing to food security and safety. In parallel, soil quality is decreasing worldwide. The complex fate of pesticides in the soil environment includes leaching, dissipation, sequestration and uptake by soil biota, and determines the occurrence of desired and undesired effects. Biochar (BC) is a product of thermal decomposition of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. BC has received extensive attention because of its multi-functionality for agricultural and environmental applications. Its application to agricultural soils has been shown to increase soil fertility, mainly due to improved nutrient and carbon availability, protection of microorganisms, and increased water holding capacity. Despite these benefits, very little BC is currently utilized as soil amendment, mainly because the mechanisms improving soil health are poorly quantified and understood. We hypothesise, based on preliminary data, that admixture of biochar will significantly interfere with the fate of CF, known to date in soil-only systems. The identification of the priming processes influencing the fate of CF in BC-enriched soils offers significant benefits exceeding the horizon of soil quality improvement. Thus, the objectives of the present project are: (1) to predict the effect of biochar physico-chemical properties (i.a., functional group chemistry, pore size distribution) on the sorption/desorption behavior of conazole fungicides and understand weathering-induced matrix changes (2) to quantify changes in pesticide fate, behaviour and bioavailability in soils treated with biochars using higher-tier ecological receptors. The ways and extents to which molecular interactions (partition, adsorption) of pesticides with BC/soil manifest at the bioavailability/bioaccessibility level (soil fauna and flora) need to be thoroughly understood as a basis for efficiently designing and adequately dosing BCs for efficient and effective agrochemical management, and are the objective of the current project. The presently obtained results will also complement our understanding of biogeochemical processes on a larger scale, i.e. of the interactions HOC and carbonaceous geosorbents including soils, naturally occurring or anthropogenic black carbon in the environment.


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