Doktorské studium

Studijní obor Ekologie

Název práce: Biogeografie speciace v druhovem komplexu Pipistrellus pipistrellus: akusticko-olfaktorický přístup

Školitel: doc. Mgr. Tomáš Bartonička, Ph.D.

Předběžné zadání:
High frequency of "cryptic" species were reported in nocturnal mammals such as bats, which rely to different perception clues than diurnal primates (Jones 1997). One of the first such examples studied in details was the case of the bat species widespread in western Palearctic, common pipistrelle Pipistrellus pipistrellus. Two sympatric cryptic species within this taxon were surprisingly discovered in Europe using analysis of echolocation calls and mtDNA (Barratt et al. 1997). Further lineages and radiation center of this complex were discovered later in the Mediterranean region by our team (Hulva et al., 2004; 2010), indicating a peripatric mode of diversification of the complex. The recent view on this morphologically relatively unified group encompass two sibling species inhabiting most of the western Palearctic (common pipistrelle P.pipistrellus s.str. and soprano pipistrelle P. pygmaeus s.str.), and several (mostly allopatric) populations inhabiting peninsulas and islands of the Mediterranean basin. In bats, adaptive evolution related to echolocation is connected with evolution of foraging strategies, trophic niche, spatial behavior and social systems, thus playing crucial role in speciation (Jones1997). 1. part Advertisement calls of different males of P.pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, P. pygmaeus cyprius and P.hanaki will be recorded at the sites of sedentary displays or songflights. Student will perform playback experiments close the swarming sites of all pipistrelle species. Advertisement calls and noise will be played back from separate loudspeakers. Student will record flight and vocal responses of bats at each experimental point using an infrared videocamera and an acoustic detector system. The essential structural components of social calls are composed of a series of similar pulses called ‘notes’ and their temporal and spectral parameters will be measured. 2. part Preliminary analyses of the secretion from facial glands using gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometric detection (GC-MS) indicated, that it is possible to distinguish between species P.pipistrellus s.str. and P. pygmaeus s.str. on the basis of quantitative and qualitative differences in chemical composition of volatiles contained in the secretion. These compounds could play of attractants in the mating behaviour and participate in reproductive isolation. Student will optimize the sampling and analytical methods in order to pinpoint and evaluate minor chemical differences in particular species during the season, between sexes and between individuals of different maturity status. Results of several replications for each category will be subjected to multivariate statistical evaluation, allowing discrimination between particular samples based on the overall chemical diversity of compounds.

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