Vegetation Science Group

Department of Botany and Zoology | Faculty of Science | Masaryk University

Vegetation of the Czech Republic

Alliance LBB
Carpinion betuli Issler 1931

The alliance Carpinion betuli includes mesic forests dominated or codominated by hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and oaks (Quercus petraea agg. and Q. robur). The herb layer is characterized by the predominance of nemoral species, specifically slightly thermophilous, shade-tolerant plants of mesic forests. This alliance is distributed in the temperate zone of Europe from Great Britain and France to Ukraine. Oak-hornbeam forests are better adapted to habitats with summer drought and late frost than beech forests, and are accordingly more common in the continental lowlands and foothill areas of east-central Europe. In central Europe, Carpinus betulus was the last species to colonize in the Holocene migration of forest trees and the extension of its range was probably facilitated by human impact on forests. Most current forests of Carpinion betuli are former coppices that have been transformed into tall forests in the second half of the 20th century.

Orig. (Issler 1931): Alliance. – Carpinetion (Carpinus betulus)

Diagnostic species: Acer campestre, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Daphne mezereum, Quercus petraea agg., Tilia cordata; Asarum europaeum, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Campanula persicifolia, C. trachelium, Carex digitata, C. pilosa, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis polygama, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Festuca heterophylla, Fragaria moschata, F. vesca, Galium intermedium, G. odoratum, G. sylvaticum, Hacquetia epipactis, Hepatica nobilis, Hieracium murorum, H. sabaudum s. l., Lathyrus niger, L. vernus, Maianthemum bifolium, Melampyrum nemorosum, Melica nutans, M. uniflora, Melittis melissophyllum, Neottia nidus-avis, Poa nemoralis, Polygonatum multiflorum, Pulmonaria officinalis agg., Sanicula europaea, Stellaria holostea, Symphytum tuberosum, Tanacetum corymbosum, Viola reichenbachiana, V. riviniana

Constant species: Carpinus betulus, Quercus petraea agg., Tilia cordata; Asarum europaeum, Campanula trachelium, Carex digitata, C. pilosa, Convallaria majalis, Fragaria vesca, Galium odoratum, G. sylvaticum, Hepatica nobilis, Hieracium murorum, Lathyrus vernus, Maianthemum bifolium, Melica nutans, Poa nemoralis, Polygonatum multiflorum, Pulmonaria officinalis agg., Stellaria holostea, Viola reichenbachiana

Source: Chytrý M. (2013): LBB Carpinion betuli Issler 1931. In: Chytrý M. (ed.), Vegetace České republiky. 4. Lesní a křovinná vegetace [Vegetation of the Czech Republic 4. Forest and shrub vegetation]. Academia, Praha, pp. 219-223.