Vegetation Science Group

Department of Botany and Zoology | Faculty of Science | Masaryk University

Vegetation of the Czech Republic

Association LBB04
Primulo veris-Carpinetum betuli Neuhäusl et Neuhäuslová in Neuhäuslová-Novotná 1964

Primulo veris-Carpinetum betuli

Photo on botanickafotogalerie.cz

This association comprises forests dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea agg., frequently accompanied by Tilia cordata. Their herb layer is composed of mesophilous (nemoral) species growing together with drought-adapted and light-demanding species of thermophilous oak forests and forest edges. Vernal synusiae with geophytes are well developed. Soils are usually calcareous and developed on flysch sediments or limestone. This association occurs in warm, dry areas of central Bohemia and southern Moravia.

Orig. (Neuhäuslová-Novotná 1964): Primulae veris-Carpinetum Neuhäusl et Neuhäuslová 1963 (Carpinus betulus)

Syn.: Primulo veris-Carpinetum Neuhäusl et Neuhäuslová 1963 (§ 1), Primulo veris-Carpinetum Neuhäusl et Neuhäuslová-Novotná 1964 prov. (§ 3b)

Diagnostic species: Acer campestre, Carpinus betulus, Cornus mas, C. sanguinea, Corylus avellana, Crataegus laevigata, C. monogyna s. l., Euonymus verrucosus, Ligustrum vulgare, Lonicera caprifolium, Pyrus pyraster, Quercus petraea agg., Q. pubescens agg., Rhamnus cathartica, Sorbus torminalis, Staphylea pinnata; Asarum europaeum, Astragalus glycyphyllos, Bromus benekenii, Buglossoides purpurocaerulea, Campanula persicifolia, C. rapunculoides, C. trachelium, Carex digitata, C. michelii, C. montana, C. muricata agg., Clinopodium vulgare, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis polygama, Dictamnus albus, Festuca heterophylla, Galium sylvaticum, Hieracium murorum, H. sabaudum s. l., Hypericum montanum, Lactuca quercina, Lathyrus niger, L. vernus, Melica nutans, M. uniflora, Melittis melissophyllum, Neottia nidus-avis, Platanthera bifolia, Poa nemoralis, Polygonatum multiflorum, Pulmonaria officinalis agg., Tanacetum corymbosum, Vicia pisiformis, Viola mirabilis; Homalothecium philippeanum

Constant species: Acer campestre, Carpinus betulus, Cornus mas, C. sanguinea, Corylus avellana, Crataegus monogyna s. l., Euonymus verrucosus, Fraxinus excelsior, Ligustrum vulgare, Quercus petraea agg., Sorbus torminalis; Asarum europaeum, Astragalus glycyphyllos, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Buglossoides purpurocaerulea, Campanula persicifolia, C. rapunculoides, C. trachelium, Carex digitata, C. montana, C. muricata agg., Clinopodium vulgare, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis polygama, Dictamnus albus, Festuca heterophylla, Fragaria vesca, Galium odoratum, G. sylvaticum, Geum urbanum, Hieracium murorum, H. sabaudum s. l., Lathyrus niger, L. vernus, Melica nutans, M. uniflora, Melittis melissophyllum, Poa nemoralis, Polygonatum multiflorum, Pulmonaria officinalis agg., Tanacetum corymbosum, Veronica chamaedrys agg., Viola mirabilis

Dominant species: Carpinus betulus, Cornus mas, Corylus avellana, Quercus petraea agg., Tilia cordata; Convallaria majalis, Galium sylvaticum, Melica uniflora, Poa nemoralis

Formal definition: Group Asarum europaeum AND Group Buglossoides purpurocaerulea AND Group Lathyrus niger AND Group Lathyrus vernus NOT Group Serratula tinctoria NOT Carex pilosa cover > 25 % NOT Pinus sylvestris cover > 25 % NOT Quercus pubescens agg. cover > 5 %

Source: Chytrý M. (2013): LBB04 Primulo veris-Carpinetum betuli Neuhäusl et Neuhäuslová in Neuhäuslová-Novotná 1964. In: Chytrý M. (ed.), Vegetace České republiky. 4. Lesní a křovinná vegetace [Vegetation of the Czech Republic 4. Forest and shrub vegetation]. Academia, Praha, pp. 233-236.