THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIPTEROLOGY IN THE TERRITORY OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA
The dipterological literature of the post-Linnean period published on the territory of today's Czechoslovakia may be divided into a number of relatively crystallised periods in coincidence with the development of the whole entomology in our country. The first stage (1758-1903) which, in fact, includes the real "historical" period of Czechoslovak dipterology is naturally boundered by the foundation of the Czech Entomological Society in 1904. The second stage (1904-1938) includes the years of the first upswing of scientific dipterology in this country. In those times due to the Moravian dipterologists, some more works were issued, exceeding the national importance. The third stage (1939-1950) was marked by an expressive fall of entomologic research and a resulting decline of dipterological production under the influence of World War II and its consequences. In the fourth stage (1951-1965) a distinct and successively presented ascention of the young generation of dipterologists can be seen. Their results, especially of the last years, present s new, to this time unprecedented upswing of Czechoslovak dipterology.
The first references were published by SCOPOLI, 1772 (Bombylius minimus from the environs of Kremnica in Slovakia) and the native authors MAYER (1779) and PREYSSLER (4 papers, 1790-1793). PREYSSLER described in 1790 s new species from Bohemia - Asilus bohemicus - and among the descriptions from the following years he introduces more than 50 species of Diptera, 22 of them for the first time at all. The first purely dipterological study is the "Monographia bombyliorum Bohemiae" by J. Ch. MIKAN (1796).
Sporadic data on the flies of Bohemia from the first half of the 19th century are quoted in MEIGEN's work (1830) and in country-scientific reports of EISELT (1833, 1846) and FIEBER (1837). In the Moravian part of Silesia, a Silesian entomologist SCHUMMEL (1842, 1844) collected sometimes as well.
KOWARZ, being the most significant dipterologist in our territory of the whole 19th century, published dipterological papers as early as 1867. His papers include, at first, findings from the time of his stay at Lučenec in Slovakia and, later on, mostly his collections in western Bohemia where he was employed as an post-off-ice clerk at the town Aš. His dipterological studies culminated in publishing the Catalogue of Bohemian Diptera in 1894. Within the framework of faunistic research also DALLA TORRE (1878) took interest in the Diptera of western Bohemia.
In the second half of the 19th century there lived in Moravia a many-sided natural historian KOLENATI who published, in 1856-1863, a whole range of papers devoted partly to Nycteribiidae, partly to the faunistic research of Mt. Praděd, where he also described some new species of Diptera, and to other themes. Some particular data were added by MORAW (1876, 1878).
In Slovakia, too, some amateur entomologists appeared in those times who started a faunistic research including Diptera. Beside the already mentioned publications by KOWARZ it is the review of GEYER (1869), MOCSÁRY (1877, 1878) and PETROGALLI (1890). The faunistic research of Diptera in Slovakia as a part of Hungary of that time was summarised and well arranged by the Hungarian entomologist THALHAMMER in 1899.
More localities of today's Czechoslovakia are mentioned also in the monographs of the classical European dipterologist SCHINER (papers from 1854 to 1865). Further records are in the papers by FRITSCH (1875), HIERONYMUS (1890), BRAUER (1880), BRAUER & BERGENSTAMM (1881), etc. The findings from the Jeseníky Mts. are mentioned several times in the works of the reputable dipterologist LOEW (more papers in 1857-1877), STEIN J. (1873) and STROBL (1893). Some finds from South Moravia had been quoted by HANDLIRSCH (1885) and WACHTL (5 papers 1882-1887); some Slovakian localities are mentioned in papers by FRIVALDSZKY (1870) and NOWICKI (1867), etc.
The most important and most prolific dipterist of that time in Bohemia was VIMMER, who published some 250 articles, papers and books during the period 1899 to 1947. These publications were devoted to the taxonomy and faunistics, e. g. the Catalog of Bohemian Diptera (1913a) or the Key to Czechoslovak genera of flies (1931a), and also to the morphology, bionomics, comparative morphology of larvae and pupae, economic importance of flies, etc. His work on the preimaginal stages of Diptera (1925d) is specially worth of mentioning. PASTEJŘÍK (7 papers 1905-1908) and WEINFURTER (4 papers, 1906-1907) published minor papers on faunistics and preimaginal stages. ŠTĚPÁN (8 papers 1923-1938) dealt with some aquatic Diptera; B. STARÝ (1930-1950), with mining Diptera and their mines. The papers by KOMÁREK (4 papers 1923-1948) on Blephariceridae, Culicidae, etc., are also noteworthy, though only a few of them refer to the Czechoslovak fauna. Some data were contributed by BAŤA, ROUBAL, ŠAMAL, etc. and many foreign authors, e. g., BISCHOFF, BREHM, BECKER, CZERNY, DUDA, KRAMER, LACKSCHEWITZ, OLDENBERG, STEIN P., etc.
The Moravian authors are of exceptional importance in that period: CZIŽEK (6 papers 1906-1925) and LANDROCK (4 papers 1907-1910), who published lists of Moravian flies with localities. CZIŽEK (12 papers 1911-1933), later on, became a good specialist in Tipulidae and Ptychopteridae, while LANDROCK (25 papers 1911-1943) developed into a top taxonomist in Palearctic Mycetophiloidea, and published also on other flies. A series of valuable papers on Chironomidae (23 papers on taxonomy and faunistics of larvae in 1917-1951) were written by ZAVŘEL, numerous cecidiological papers by BAYER (13 papers with dipterological notes in 1907-1946 and BAUDYŠ (see below). ČERNIK (19 papers 1925-1943) published a set of phytopathological papers with numerous localised dipterological data. KRATOCHVÍL (10 papers 1936-1946) published mainly on edaphic and apterous Diptera. In addition, notes by ABSOLON, ARNDT, BECKER, DUDA, HETSCHKO, PAX and coauct., LENGERSDORF, etc., are scattered in the literature.
The papers on Slovakian Diptera include the lists of BRANCSIK (1910), FEKETE (1914) and various data by Czech (BALTHASAR, KOMÁREK, KRATOCHVÍL, MAYER) and foreign authors, such as ACZEL, BARTAL, BECKER, DUDA, KERTÉSZ, KUNTZE, LACKSCHEWITZ, RIEDEL, SZILÁDY, etc.
This period is characterised by a decrease in the number of papers published. Provided we do not consider those leading dipterists whose main productive time was before this period (BAYER, LANDROCK, VIMMER, ZAVŘEL), we find that JACENTKOVSKI (29 papers 1933-1944) published many valuable taxonomical or faunistic papers on Tachinidae, Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae. The cecidiologist BAUDYŠ continued to publish extensively. Mainly in the second half of this period there appear papers on Diptera important in the fields of public health or hydrobiology. BREINDL & KOMÁREK (1940-1941), HAVLÍK & ROSICKÝ (1949) and KRAMÁŘ (see below) dealt with Culicidae, HRABĚ (5 hydrobiological papers 1938-1946) with Chironomidae, HRBÁČEK (1945) with Stratiomyid larvae.
Furthermore, ČEPELÁK (2 papers 1940) wrote about Syrphidae and Conopidae, ŠILHAÝ (1945) and ŠLAIS (1946) about Chionea Dalm., SLÍPKA (6 papers 1948-1955) about Tipulidae. Some records were contributed by CYRUS, KVÍČALA, PAŠEK, PŘÍHODA, ZELINKA, etc.
Several foreign authors also mention Czechoslovak localities: HENNIG, LACKSCHEWITZ, LINDNER, SOÓS, TONNOIR, etc.
The period from 1950 on is characterised by substantially increasing publishing activity, producing papers which represent a modern end exhaustive approach to the study of Czechoslovak dipterous fauna. The number of publishing authors, tho number of published papers and the co-operation between authors were evaluated.
In the family Tipulidae, SLÍPKA (see above) published several taxonomical papers. MANNHEIMS (1951-) and SAVTSHENKO (1961, 1964) also give some faunistic data from Czechoslovakia.
The Psychodidae of Slovakia have been investigated by the Hungarian dipterist SZABÓ (4 papers 1960-1965).
Several faunistic data on the family Blephariceridae are in the papers concerning hydrobiology (OBR, ZELINKA) and in the paper by GULIČKA (1952). SLÁDEČEK (3 papers 1951-1952) and PROKEŠOVÁ (2 papers 1959) dealt with the larvae of Chaoborus Licht. (Chaoboridae), further data are in some hydrobiological papers by ALBERTOVÁ, BRTEK & ROTSCHEIN, KUBÍČEK, ZELINKA & MARVAN, LELLÁK, etc.
The family Culicidae, which its the best-known group of Czechoslovak Diptera, was studied by numerous authors. The major author is KRAMÁŘ (15 works and papers 1949-1961, partly with coauct.), who published on faunistics and taxonomy of Czechoslovak species. His study of Aëdes Meig. (1955) and his work published in the series "Fauna ČSR" (1958) deserve a special note. Data on the mosquitoes of Czechoslovakia were contributed especially by DANIELOVÁ (3 papers 1958-1961), NOVÁK D. (10 papers 1958-1963) and TRPIŠ (14 papers 1954-1965), further also by DIRLBEK K., HUSÁROVÁ, KORBEL, KUNST, MINÁŘ, NOVÁK V., THURZO, VOSTAL, etc.
Some data on Ceratopogonidae are in the papers by LELLÁK (3 papers 1953-1958), MINÁŘ (1962, 1965), ONDERIKOVÁ (1955) and PACLT (1962).
All data at hand of the family Chironomidae are rather or hydrobiological character, and species are identified almost exclusively according to larvae and pupae. Within the framework of hydrobiological studies, especially LELLÁK (4 papers 1953-1961), LOSOS (1952), LOSOS & MARVAN (1957), ERTLOVÁ (3 papers 1963-1964) devoted their attention to the Chironomid larvae. S. HRABĚ (1956) described a new larva of Diamesinae. In addition, several foreign authors, e. g., BERCZIK (1959), provide some data.
Czechoslovak Simuliidae are rather well known, particularly from the papers by NOVÁK V. (4 papers 1956-1959) and KNOZ (7 papers 1960-1965), who also described several new species. KNOZ published in 1965 a monograph of Czechoslovak species. ŠVEC (1957) and HÁJKOVÁ (1962) published minor papers, and some data are in various hydrobiological papers.
Czechoslovak Bibionidae were studied by PECINA (4 papers 1962-1965), the super-family Mycetophiloidea by LANDROCK in earlier periods. Recently, LAŠTOVKA (1963) revised a group of Mycetophila Meig. and the Austrian dipterist MAYER H. (1950, 1951) described two new species of Bolitophilidae.
The gall-midges of the family Cecidomyiidae are best known from cecidiological papers by BAUDYŠ (59 papers 1913-1965). Nevertheless, the papers by SKUHRAVÁ (9 papers 1957-1964, part. with coauth.) largely contributed to our knowledge from the dipterological point of view. In addition, SKUHRAVÁ & SKUHRAVÝ (1960) published a book on Cecidomyiidae, with numerous valuable data on the distribution of important species in Czechoslovakia.
Stratiomyidae were revised thoroughly by DUŠEK & ROZKOŠNÝ (1963-1965), DUŠEK (1961) published a study of the larvae of Odontomyia Meig. Czechoslovakian Tabanidae are well known, largely from the work of MOUCHA & CHVÁLA (11 papers 1955-1964), who published many papers including a revision of Czechoslovak species. Further contributions are by CHVÁLA (1964), ČEPELÁK (1959b), DANIELOVÁ (1961a) and MINÁŘ (1962, 1965), Slovakian species were dealt with by ČEPELÁK & VLČKOVÁ (1964), GUNÁROVÁ (1965), GUNÁROVÁ & ZAJONC (1964), ZAJONC (4 papers 1959-1961), etc.
A revision of Czechoslovak Rhagionidae was published by ROZKOŠNÝ & SPITZER (1965); DUŠEK (1964) described praeimaginal stages of 2 spp. of Chrysopilus.
The robber-flies of the sub-family Laphrinae were studied comprehensively by MOUCHA & HRADSKÝ (1956, 1963) and MOUCHA (1956b). HRADSKÝ (1962) described several new species of Asilidae from Czechoslovakia. Two larger faunistic papers on Asilidae are also by ZAJONC (1960, 1961). Some further data are in the papers by ČEPELÁK, MOUCHA, MOUCHA & ŠTYS and by the Italian specialist CASTELLANI. The Bombyliidae were dealt with by ZAJONC (4 papers 1958-1961), but only Slovakian localities were listed.
In Platypezidae, DUŠEK (1962) published a description of the larva of Platypeza fasciata Meig. The family Syrphidae is rather well-known. ČEPELÁK published in 1952-1964 a good series of faunistic papers. Also, the papers by KEMPNÝ (23 papers 1951-1961), devoted to the taxonomy and faunistics of Syrphidae are worth mentioning. Others are by BIČÍK (1964), MOUCHA (3 papers 1956a-1961), MOUCHA & ŠTYS (4 papers 1954-1962), STOLLÁR (1964) and ŠTYS (1959-1961). Contributions to our knowledge of the larval taxonomy were made by DUŠEK & LÁSKA (7 papers 1959-1964) and DUŠEK & KŘÍSTEK (1959). Faunistic papers of Czechoslovak Conopidae were published by ČEPELÁK (2 papers 1959) and CHVÁLA (6 papers 1961-1965). DUŠEK (1964) described the puparium of Conops vesicularis L.
A regional faunistic study on many families of Acalyptrata was published by DOSKOČIL (1962). Numerous data on our Acalyptrata are included also in the papers by Hungarian dipterists ARADI (1959), MIHALYI (1959b) and SOÓS (9 papers 1938-1958). K. DIRLBEK and J. DIRLBEK (5 papers 1959-1962) published on the faunistics and larval morphology of Tephritidae. A comprehensive review of Czechoslovak Sepsidae was published by ZUSKA (1960); Sciomyzidae were extensively studied by ROZKOŠNÝ (10 papers 1959-1965) and ROZKOŠNÝ & ZUSKA (1965). A revision of Czechoslovak Piophilidae was published by ZUSKA & LAŠTOVKA (1965). In Neottiophilidae, the only paper is by DOSKOČIL (1960). In Chloropidae ZUSKA (1960) described a new species of Chlorops Meig. from Bohemia.
ŠIFNER (4 papers 1964-1965) revised the collection of Scatophagidae in the National Museum in Prague and gave further data. A faunistic and taxonomical revision of Czechoslovak Hippoboscidae was published by POVOLNÝ & ROSICKÝ (1955); further contributions, by CHALUPSKÝ (1956) and POVOLNÝ & BALÁT (1956). Czechoslovakian species of Nycteribiidae were revised by GRULICH & POVOLNÝ (1955, 1956). HŮRKA (5 pares 1958-1964), HŮRKA & CHALUPSKÝ (1956), ŠEBEK (3 papers 1958-1962) and CHALUPSKÝ (1956) published further papers on this family.
The family Calliphoridae was studied by ČEPELÁK (3 papers 1952-1959), ZAJONC (1958 - genus Pollenia) and GREGOR & POVOLNÝ (1959) - a taxonomical revision of the Phormiini. The Sarcophagidae are best known from Slovakia where they were studied by ČEPELÁK (1956 and some papers with coauct.) and, especially, by SLAMEČKOVÁ (9 papers 1959-1965). POVOLNÝ and SLAMEČKOVÁ (1959) described two new species of Pierretia R. -D.
The parasitic family Tachinidae is one of the best-known groups of Diptera in Czechoslovakia. It was studied in this period namely by ČEPELÁK, who published, in 1952-1965, an extensive series of faunistic papers, especially on Slovakian fauna and described two new species from Czechoslovakia. ZUSKA (1962, 1963) dealt with immature stages. Some data on Oestridae are by GREGOR & POVOLNÝ (1961b), HLINOVSKÝ (1951), POVOLNÝ (1960), POVOLNÝ, HOLIŠOVÁ & ZAPLETAL (1960), etc.
Numerous papers by Czechoslovak dipterists are devoted to synanthropic flies. Many of them include faunistic records, especially on Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, etc. The main papers are by GREGOR & POVOLNÝ (4 papers 1958-1961), HAVLÍK & BAŤOVÁ (1961), HAVLÍK & ČELEDOVÁ (1962) and HUSÁROVÁ (1965). Coenological studies with numerous records, e. g., by DOSKOČIL & HŮRKA (1962), MARTINEK (1960), SKUHRAVÝ, NOVÁK & STARÝ (1959), etc.