Ekologická a evoluční biologie

Fascinuje nás rozmanitost života.

Podat přihlášku

Přijímací řízení do doktorských programů - akad.rok 2020/2021 (zahájení: podzim 2020)
Termín podání přihlášky do půlnoci 30. 4. 2020

Co se naučíte

Ekologická a evoluční biologie je tematicky obsáhlý program, který je zaměřen zejména na studium biosystematiky, taxonomie, ekologie, paleoekologie, evoluční ekologie, evoluční biologie, etologie a rozmanitosti organizmů na úrovni druhů, populací, společenstev a flór a faun různých území. Důraz je kladen na studium interakcí mezi organizmy a jejich prostředím, a mezi organizmy navzájem, např. vztahy parazit-hostitel nebo predátor-kořist. Odborná šíře programu vede k jeho dělení do pěti specializací: Botanika, Ekologie, Hydrobiologie, Parazitologie a Zoologie. Specializace jsou definovány jak taxonomickým zaměřením, tak metodickými přístupy. Jejich vymezení ovšem není plně diskrétní: v některých tematických okruzích se částečně překrývají, což je odrazem mezioborovosti současné biologie.

Program má dvě základní formy studia, prezenční a kombinovanou, které se liší zejména v požadavcích na pravidelnou přítomnost studentů na pracovišti. Prezenční forma je také spojena se zapojením studentů do pravidelné výuky nebo její přípravy. Studenti prezenční formy pobírají měsíční stipendium dle platných a jednotných pravidel fakulty. Přechod z prezenční na kombinovanou formu je možný na základě žádosti studenta.

Praxe

Žádné informace nejsou k dispozici

Chcete vědět víc?

Další informace o studiu a dění na Ústavu botaniky a zoologie naleznete zde:

http://botzool.sci.muni.cz/

https://www.facebook.com/botzool

Uplatnění absolventů

Absolventi doktorského studijního programu Ekologická a evoluční biologie nacházejí uplatnění zejména v akademických nebo rezortních výzkumných ústavech, na vysokých školách přírodovědeckého, pedagogického, zemědělského, lesnického, veterinárního nebo farmaceutického zaměření, ve státních institucích ochrany přírody a krajiny, v přírodovědeckých odděleních muzeí a v soukromých firmách nebo nevládních organizacích zaměřených na problematiku ochrany přírody a životního prostředí nebo zdraví člověka i živočichů, a to jak v České republice, tak i v zahraničí.

Podmínky přijetí

Přijímací řízení probíhá formou prezentace tématu, uvažovaných metod a očekávaných výsledků uchazečem v angličtině a následného pohovoru, na základě čehož komise ověřuje a boduje úroveň odborných znalostí a předpokladů uchazeče k samostatné vědecké práci (0-200 bodů) a znalostí anglického jazyka (0-100 bodů).

Kritéria hodnocení

Pro přijetí musí uchazeč získat minimálně 120 bodů v odborné a minimálně 60 bodů v jazykové části zkoušky.

Termíny

1. ledna –
30. dubna 2020
Termín pro podání přihlášek

Podat přihlášku

Možnosti studia

Jednooborové studium se specializací

V rámci jednooborového studia má student možnost prohloubit si vědomosti v konkrétním zaměření daného studijního programu, specializaci si vybírá jednu. Název specializace pak bude uveden i na vysokoškolském diplomu.

Školitelé a výzkumná zaměření dizertačních prací

Školitelé

Součástí přihlášky je jméno předpokládaného školitele. Školitele si vyhledejte podle profilového zaměření ze seznamu školitelů a konzultujte s ním jeho potenciální školitelství a návrh projektu.

Výzkumná zaměření dizertačních prací

Specializace: Botanika

Aplikovaná ekologie rostlin: obnova biologické diversity a funkcí ekosystémů

Školitel: doc. RNDr. Jakub Těšitel, Ph.D.

Are you worried about biodiversity decline and loss of ecosystem functions? If so, it may be worth devoting your career to the field of ecological restoration. The research focuses mainly on biodiversity restoration of anthropogenic habitats and development of sustainable practices for agro-ecosystems. While dealing mostly with plants, the abiotic context and ecological interactions, e.g. with insect herbivores and pollinators, will also be investigated. Methodology involves a number of different approaches including field observations and experiments, cultivation experiments and analyses of vegetation data. These approaches may be selected or combined to suit individual research questions and preferences of the candidates. Accordingly, individual topics may be studied under the specialization Botany or Ecology. Specific topics include but are not limited to:
  • Development of regional seed mixtures
  • Testing management measures to enhance biodiversity restoration on re-created grasslands
  • Enhancing biodiversity of synanthropic habitats
  • Promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning using ecosystem engineering abilities of hemiparasitic plants
Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Jakub Těšitel (tesitel@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic. Candidates from any country are welcome.

Biodiverzita městských biotopů

Školitel: doc. RNDr. Zdeňka Lososová, Ph.D.

This research topic aims to explore the diversity of plant communities in urbanized areas and factors, which shape their structure and function. The results of the study will contribute to deeper understanding of biodiversity changes in the face of increasing urbanization. The work either combine field work with analyses of vegetation data or is focused on data analyses only.

Specific topics for individual PhD projects can include:

  • Diversity and ecology of urban biota
  • Phylogenetic and functional diversity of urban biota
  • Potential changes in diversity under increasing urbanization
  • Impact of urban areas on biotic invasion
  • Human made habitats as potential secondary refugia of native species

Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Zdeňka Lososová (lososova@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic. Candidates from any country are welcome.

Diverzita evropské vegetace a biotopů

Školitel: prof. RNDr. Milan Chytrý, Ph.D.

This broad research topic includes various analyses of diversity of European vegetation and habitat types. It includes work with large data on species composition in vegetation plots stored in the European Vegetation Archive (http://euroveg.org/eva-database) and also fieldwork in selected regions of Europe where gaps in vegetation data coverage have been identified.

The basic requirements include knowledge of plants in the field and skills with vegetation data analysis. If your focus is on data analysis rather than on field botany, refer to the same topic in the specialization Ecology

Specific topics for individual PhD projects can include:

  • classification of selected vegetation type across Europe or a European region
  • analyses and mapping of species alpha, beta and gamma diversity across Europe or European region for specific vegetation or habitat types
  • analyses of phylogenetic diversity of plant communities across Europe
  • analyses of functional diversity (plant trait patterns) of plant communities across Europe
  • relationships between plant community diversity and environmental factors and regional environmental history
  • comparative analyses of European vegetation with analogous vegetation on other continents
  • patterns of plant invasions in European vegetation and habitat types
  • recent changes in species composition and diversity of plant communities and their relationships to environmental change (e.g. land-use change, climate change, eutrophication)
  • development of habitat classification systems for applications in nature conservation, forestry or land management

Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Milan Chytrý (chytry@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic. Candidates from any country are welcome, especially if they have previous skills from botanical fieldwork in Europe.

Funkční ekologie rostlin: od populací po společenstva

Školitel: doc. RNDr. Jakub Těšitel, Ph.D.

This research topic aims at exploring functional traits of plants; specifically, how they affect plant population dynamics, species interactions and coexistence, ecological niches and geographical distribution. Methodology involves a number of different approaches including field observations and experiments, cultivation experiments and analyses of vegetation data. These approaches may be selected or combined to suit individual research questions and preferences of the candidates. Specific topics include but are not limited to:
  • Seasonal niche differentiation as a mechanism of species coexistence in steppe-grasslands
  • Large-scale patterns of functional diversity on the European continent
  • Ecological interactions of hemiparasitic plants
Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Jakub Těšitel (tesitel@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic. Candidates from any country are welcome.

Holocenní historie západokarpatských biotopů

Školitel: doc. Mgr. Michal Hájek, Ph.D.

The research aims to explore the Holocene history of the Western Carpathian habitats using palaeoecological sequences obtained from peat, carbonates or lake sediments. The proxies are those that are relevant for botany, i.e. pollen, macrofossils of bryophytes and vascular plants or diatoms. Other proxies (macrofossils of animals, geochemical proxies) are covered by the topic „Mire ecology and diversity“ offered within the Ecology package. The local multi-proxy studies as well as synthetic large-scale studies could be conducted.

Examples of potential student doctoral projects:

  • Holocene development of summit grasslands in the Western Carpathians
  • Holocene history of recently endangered ecosystems in the Western Carpathians
  • Dynamics of major tree taxa during the Holocene in the Western Carpathians and the surroundings (synthesis)
  • Coincidences between prehistoric settlement and agriculture and vegetation development in the Western Carpathians (synthesis)

PLEASE NOTE: before initiating the formal application process to doctoral studies, all interested candidates are required to contact Michal Hájek (hajek@sci.muni.cz) for informal discussion and topic specification.

Vegetační ekologie rašelinišť a jiných reliktních ekosystémů

Školitel: doc. Mgr. Michal Hájek, Ph.D.

The research aims to explore the diversity and vegetation ecology of European mires in terms of vascular plants, bryophytes and diatoms. The outcomes contribute to protection of these fascinating but currently vanishing ecosystems and to general ecological and biogeographical knowledge. Other relict ecosystems that have experienced wider distribution in the past (at the Quaternary scale) and now are endangered could be studied as well. Target habitats include also partially anthropogenic ones that recently act as refugium for the relict flora, such as fen and steppe-like grasslands.

Examples of potential student doctoral projects:

  • Vegetation diversity and ecology of European mires (specific regions or mire types could be selected)
  • Recent changes in fen or grassland ecosystems (explored e.g. using permanent plots)
  • Distribution, phylogeography, genetics or ecology of specialised and endagered mire plants (vascular plants. bryophytes)
  • Distribution, phylogeography, genetics or ecology of glacial and Early Holocene relicts
  • Ecology of extremelly species-rich steppe grasslands of White Carpathians
  • Testing appropriate active management measures to protect species-rich relict ecosystems

PLEASE NOTE: before initiating the formal application process to doctoral studies, all interested candidates are required to contact Michal Hájek (hajek@sci.muni.cz) for informal discussion and topic specification.

Specializace: Ekologie

Aplikovaná ekologie rostlin: obnova biologické diversity a funkcí ekosystémů

Školitel: doc. RNDr. Jakub Těšitel, Ph.D.

Are you worried about biodiversity decline and loss of ecosystem functions? If so, it may be worth devoting your career to the field of ecological restoration. The research focuses mainly on biodiversity restoration of anthropogenic habitats and development of sustainable practices for agro-ecosystems. While dealing mostly with plants, the abiotic context and ecological interactions, e.g. with insect herbivores and pollinators, will also be investigated. Methodology involves a number of different approaches including field observations and experiments, cultivation experiments and analyses of vegetation data. These approaches may be selected or combined to suit individual research questions and preferences of the candidates. Accordingly, individual topics may be studied under the specialization Botany or Ecology. Specific topics include but are not limited to:
  • Development of regional seed mixtures
  • Testing management measures to enhance biodiversity restoration on re-created grasslands
  • Enhancing biodiversity of synanthropic habitats
  • Promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning using ecosystem engineering abilities of hemiparasitic plants
Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Jakub Těšitel (tesitel@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic. Candidates from any country are welcome.

Biodiverzita městských biotopů

Školitel: doc. RNDr. Zdeňka Lososová, Ph.D.

This research topic aims to explore the diversity of plant communities in urbanized areas and factors, which shape their structure and function. The results of the study will contribute to deeper understanding of biodiversity changes in the face of increasing urbanization. The work either combine field work with analyses of vegetation data or is focused on data analyses only.

Specific topics for individual PhD projects can include:

Diversity and ecology of urban biota
Phylogenetic and functional diversity of urban biota
Potential changes in diversity under increasing urbanization
Impact of urban areas on biotic invasion
Human made habitats as potential secondary refugia of native species

Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Zdeňka Lososová (lososova@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic. Candidates from any country are welcome.

Biologie a paleoekologie kontinentálních měkkýšů

Školitel: prof. RNDr. Michal Horsák, Ph.D.

This doctoral research project focuses on various aspects of diversity patterns, ecology, paleoecology, phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs.

Before initiating the formal application process to doctoral studies, all interested candidates are required to contact Prof. Michal Horsák (horsak@sci.muni.cz) for an informal discussion.

Examples of potential student doctoral theses:

  • Drivers of land snail diversity on various spatial and temporal scales
  • Phylogeny of land snails and cryptic species complexes
  • Biotic interactions affecting mollusc communities
  • Development and diet of land snail
  • Molluscs in palaeoecological reconstructions
  • Molluscs as indicators of past changes since the Last Glacial Maximum

More information on the supervisor's scientific interests, projects and activities: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michal_Horsak

Diverzita evropské vegetace a biotopů

Školitel: prof. RNDr. Milan Chytrý, Ph.D.

This broad research topic includes various analyses of diversity of European vegetation and habitat types. It includes work with large data on species composition in vegetation plots stored in the European Vegetation Archive (http://euroveg.org/eva-database).

The basic requirements include skills with statistical data analysis (especially in R) or in geoinformatics geographics (geographic information systems or remote sensing). The candidates whose focus is on botanical fieldwork rather than on data analysis should apply for the same topic in the specialization Botany.

Specific topics for individual PhD projects can include:

  • analyses and mapping of species alpha, beta and gamma diversity across Europe or European region for specific vegetation or habitat types
  • analyses of phylogenetic diversity of plant communities across Europe
  • analyses of functional diversity (plant trait patterns) of plant communities across Europe
  • relationships between plant community diversity and environmental factors and regional environmental history
  • comparative analyses of European vegetation with analogous vegetation on other continents
  • patterns of plant invasions in European vegetation and habitat types
  • recent changes in species composition and diversity of plant communities and their relationships to environmental change (e.g. land-use change, climate change, eutrophication)
  • development of habitat classification systems for applications in nature conservation, forestry or land management

Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Milan Chytrý (chytry@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic. Candidates from any country are welcome.

Ekologie a diverzita rašelinišť

Školitel: doc. Mgr. Michal Hájek, Ph.D.

The research aims to explore the diversity and ecology of European mires, especially calcium-rich fens. The outcomes contribute to protection of these fascinating but currently vanishing ecosystems and to general ecological and biogeographical knowledge. The study organisms are especially bryophytes and vascular plants (i.e., vegetation), but also important groups of other organisms such as invertebrates or protists. Recent as well as fossil assemblages are studied.

Examples of potential student doctoral projects:

  • Understanding the recent anthropogenic changes in fen ecosystems and testing the appropriate conservation management
  • Biondication potential of mire organisms, congruence among mire organisms
  • Ecology and ecosystem role of endangered mire bryophytes
  • The role of water chemistry, hydrology and climate on species composition and interspecific interactions in mires
  • Quaternary history of mire ecosystems and its mirroring in the current distribution and diversity patterns

PLEASE NOTE: before initiating the formal application process to doctoral studies, all interested candidates are required to contact Michal Hájek (hajek@sci.muni.cz) for informal discussion and topic specification.

Specializace: Hydrobiologie

Společenstva vodních bezobratlých toků vysychajících během klimatické změny

Školitel: doc. RNDr. Jana Schenková, Ph.D.

The research aims to explore join impact of climatic changes and human alterations on aquatic communities, especially on small occasionally drying river networks. The research is a part of broad international project developing predictions for future biodiversity responses to scenarios of climate change. The study organisms for student doctoral project are aquatic and semiaquatic invertebrates of group Clitellata. They represent the model group of contrasting answers to environmental stressors, having high tolerance to anthropogenic stress (pollution, habitat modification etc.), possessing adaptations for survival during drying period, however, however, with low dispersal abilities. For obtaining different geographic and climatic setting, Czech drying river network will be compared with European ecoregion in different climatic zone to derive current and future community responses to drying.
Examples of potential student doctoral projects: * Spatial and temporal changes of clitellate communities in drying river network,* A comparison of clitellate communities in drying river networks of two different European ecoregions, * The role of dispersal modes for recovery of aquatic assemblies in disturbed (i.e. artificially) and undisturbed (i.e. close to pristine conditions) river parts of drying river network
Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Jana Schenková (schenk@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic.

Specializace: Parazitologie

Evoluční ekologie kongenerických monogeneí parazitujících sladkovodní ryby

Školitel: prof. RNDr. Andrea Vetešníková Šimková, PhD.

One of the research topic of the group of evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions represents the studies of host-parasite coevolution using the systems of monogenean parasites and their associated fish hosts. Phylogenetic and cophylogenetic approaches have been applied to infer the patterns of parasite speciation and diversification and to reveal historical routes of dispersion of freshwater fish with current fragmented dispersion. The actual project of A. Vetešníková Šimková focused on the investigation of diversity and phylogeny of host-specific congeneric monogeneans parasitizing cyprinid fish in Middle East representing the important place of historical contacts of fauna among three continents. Actually there is the open position for PhD student within the above mentioned project. The main objective of the PhD thesis will be to analyze the diversity and phylogeny of monogeneans exhibiting different level of host specificity (Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Diplozooidae). These parasites will be used as supplementary tool to infer the historical contacts of cypriniform fish between Middle East and Mediterranean areas.
Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Andrea Vetešníková Šimková (simkova@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic.

Koexistence hybridních a polyploidních forem kaprovitých ryb: role parazitizmu

Školitel: prof. RNDr. Andrea Vetešníková Šimková, PhD.

One of the research topic of the group of evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions represents the studies of genetic disruption in hybrid and polyploid fish hosts. Even natural hybridization in cyprinids is common phenomenon, the frequency of hybrids are relatively low. In contrast, the coexistence of the forms with different ploidy level is extraordinary evolutionary phenomenon in fish. Basically, research group of A. Vetešníková Šimková focused on genetic disruption in fish hybrids hypothesizing the potential broken host-parasite co-adaptation especially for host specific parasites missing their closely associated hosts. However, the genes involved in metabolism and reproduction are in obvious interest as their pattern of expression may explain the mechanisms of current coexistence of hybrid and polyploid forms in cyprinids.
Actually there is the open position for PhD student within the above mentioned research topic. More specifically, the aim of the PhD thesis will be to analyze the transcriptome profile of diploid-polyploid complex of cyprinid fish and to search for the overexpression and underexpression of genes involved in growth, metabolism, reproduction and immunity. The PhD project will also include the experimental parasite infection; the quantification of the differentially expressed genes associated with parasites will be analyzed in diploid, triploid and tetraploid forms of hosts.
Please note: Before submitting an official application, the candidates are requested to contact Andrea Vetešníková Šimková (simkova@sci.muni.cz) to discuss the specification of the topic.

Strategie parazitismu u bazálních linií Apicomplexa

Školitel: RNDr. Andrea Bardůnek Valigurová, Ph.D.

Apicomplexans are known as significant pathogens of humans and animals that cause serious diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis or cryptosporidiosis. Recent knowledge of Apicomplexa is mainly based on studies of practically important and evolutionary advanced representatives, mostly belonging to intracellular coccidians. Our research is dedicated to the reconstruction of the divergence of parasitism strategies in poorly studied Apicomplexa basal groups, which in various ways realise the intracellular, epicellular, and extracellular parasitism in different host organs and cavities. Data on general morphology, fine structure (attachment site, cell cortex, cytoskeleton) and biology (feeding and motility modes, life cycle features) of marine invertebrate parasites - blastogregarines, gregarines, coccidians and alveolates closely related to Apicomplexa - will reveal the main features of their parasitism. Comprehensive analysis of morphological and molecular phylogenetic data will allow to reconstruct the pathways of the origin and evolution of various parasitism strategies in Apicomplexa.

For research purposes we use a combination of standard parasitological methods including field sampling of host organisms, experimental in vitro assays, microscopic analyses (light, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy), histochemical, biochemical, and molecular biological approaches.

The student will benefit from teamwork, but at the same time will be fully supported by his personal scientific development, independent scientific thinking and initiative.

Specializace: Zoologie

Biotické a abiotické interakce obratlovců

Školitel: doc. Mgr. Natália Martínková, Ph.D.

Overview: Organisms respond to their environment by searching for and exploiting a suitable set of resources, wherein they encounter and interact with other organisms. The interactions with the environment and other biota form a complex network of influences that determines survival, fitness and reproduction.

Objectives: The student will combine laboratory experiments, field observations and publicly available data to develop computational models that address the mechanisms governing outcome of vertebrate interactions. The potential tools range from molecular genetic techniques, to spectral imaging or high-resolution microscopy. The student will benefit from working in a diverse research group, where pursuit of their own research interests and opportunities will be encouraged.

Example Ph.D. projects:

  • Escaping predator pressure by migration and camouflage
  • Three-way interactions leading to diseases - the host, the pathogen and their environment
Examples on past student project can be found at https://www.ivb.cz/en/person/natalia-martinkova/

Before initiating the formal application process to doctoral studies, interested candidates should contact Assoc. Prof. Natália Martínková (martinkova@ivb.cz) for an informal discussion.

Informace o studiu

Zajišťuje Přírodovědecká fakulta
Typ studia doktorský
Forma prezenční ano
kombinovaná ano
Možnosti studia jednooborově ne
jednooborově se specializací ano
v kombinaci s jiným programem ne
Doba studia 4 roky
Vyučovací jazyk čeština
Oborová rada a oborové komise

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